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How to translate ..?

To become

There are numerous ways to translate this. If there is a verb that translates "to become ..." or "to get ..." (see below for a list), then use that but if there is not then use:
Ponerse for normal short-term changes in appearance or mood e.g. ponte cómodo = make yourself comfortable, me puse colorado = I went red, Me puse muy malo = I got quite ill
Volverse for a change that is more permanent and unpredictable. The change is also sudden and you use this particularly if a change affects the mind e.g. se volvió deprimida = she became depressed (volver can also mean "to turn around")
Quedar(se) this is used with changes that are more permanent (especially for the worse) and not necessarily sudden. The change may involve deterioration due to external circumstances. It is also used with pregnancy. Marta (se) quedó sordo = Marta went deaf. Marta (se) quedó embarazada = Marta became pregnant.
Convertirse en means something like "to turn into" and it is a long-lasting change in someone's character or a substance which has a gradual change e.g. el pueblo se convirtió en un gran cuidad = the town became a great city, el agua se convierte en vapor = water turns in to steam.
Hacerse can mean lots of things but in this sense, it can be used for a change in a belief or profession (once you have attained some qualifications) like me hice peluquero = I became a hairdresser, se hizo rico = he became rich. It also is for states resulting from a gradual process such as becoming famous or a pain becoming unbearable (a gradual, cumulative pain).
It may be a confusing verb as it can also mean such things like "No se haga daño = Don't hurt yourself", nos hicimos amigos = we became friends or "se hizo un traje = he got a suit made" (from hacerse algo). There are also many other uses for hacer.
llegar a ser is used for something that has reached a maximum e.g. heat becoming unbearable. You use "llegar a" with a noun.
Estar hecho un(a) translates "have turned into" or "have become" and is often used with people to express something emplatic e.g. Miguel está hecho todo un corredor = Miguel has become a really good runner
Nombrar is used for titles or posts.

Here are all the verbs that I know that translate "to become ..." or "to get ..."
abatir = to get / become depressed
aburrirse = to get / become bored
alegrarse = to get / become happy
cansarse de = to get / become tired / bored (of)
casarse = to get / become married (it’s like casa = house, married is sort of like being housed)
crecerse = to get / become cocky
enfadarse = to get / become angry (used in Spain)
enfermarse = to get / become ill (form not used in Spain)
engordar = to get / become fat
entristecerse = to get / become sad (triste = sad)
entusiasmarse = to get / become excited
mojarse = to get / become wet


que viene = that comes
When talking about time, que viene is often used. It is rarely used with days or months.
el año que viene = the year that comes (next year)
Quiero estudiar para mecánico el año que viene = I want to study to be a mechanic next year
Nos vemos la semana que viene = We will see each other next week

When you are talking about something next in a sequence in time, use the adjective próximo (which can also mean "upcoming"):
el lunes próximo = next Monday
el año próximo = the next year (or "el año que viene = the year that comes" or "el año siguiente = the following year")
La próxima parada, por favor = the next stop please
¡La Navidad está próxima! = Christmas is almost here!
¿Cuándo es el próximo vuelo? = When is the next flight?
Voy a hacerlo la semana próxima = I am going to do it next week
La próxima versión del software funcionará mejor = The next version of the software will work better
La próxima vez que nos veamos = when next we see each other (subjunctive used with 'ver' as it isn't a fact that we will see each other)
Does anybody know whether the positioning of this adjective makes any difference?

siguiente = following (from the verb seguir = to follow)
This is used for something that is next in order, siguiente is often used:
el día siguiente = the following day
vuelva a la página siguiente = turn to the next page
Lea lo siguiente = read the following (thing)
¿Podría usted dejarme bajar en la siguiente esquina? = Would you let me off at the next corner?

When next means afterwards (when it is an adverb) then use después (or luego which isn't used as much):
No sé qué harán después = I don't know what they will do next (afterwards)
Después añadí más sal al estofado = next I added more salt to the stew

Other 'next' words:
al lado de =  next to / to the side of
'next to last' or penultimate is penúltimo


Before something that you can't count or some vague quantity, miss the word 'some' out:
Tengo que comprar pan = I must buy bread
Ponga sal al estofado = Put some salt in the stew
Añadí más sal al estofado = I added more salt to the stew
Hay uvas = There are grapes

Before a small number of countable things, use unos or unas (it also translates as 'a pair of' or 'a few'):
Compré unos patines = I bought a pair of skates
He hablado con unos españoles = I spoke to a couple of Spanish people

When some = certain = some of a group of people, use alguno
Note that in English, it sometimes translates as any. It changes exactly like 'uno' and can be an adjective or pronoun. As a pronoun, it means somebody (although 'somebody can be translated as 'el que / la que' etc. see this artice to learn about that).
algún día lo haré = I will do it some day
En algunos casos ... = In some cases ... (in certain cases, in some cases but not others)
Alguno de ellos = one of them (here, alguno is used as a pronoun)
Algunos trabajan demasiado = Some people work too much (algunos is used as a pronoun)
Algunos perros son demasiado altos = some dogs are too big
¿Ha encontrado alguna falta? = Have you found some mistake (or any mistake)
¿Hay algunas bibliotecas locales? = Are there any local libraries?
¿Hay alguna panadería? = Is there a bakery? (for bread)
No tiene fuerza alguna = He has no strength (alguno / alguna here is used as an adjective after the noun)
Does anybody know whether the positioning of this adjective makes any difference?

Note that the exact opposite of alguno is ninguno, meaning none (of them) or nobody:
No va a ninguna parte = He isn't going anywhere (literally: he is not going to no place)
Ninguno de los dos me ha llamado todavía = Neither of the two has called me yet

To stop or to finish (with activities)

There are numerous ways to translate this. The common ones are:
Acabar - to finish / abandon (it sort of means to put an end to something)
Dejar de - to stop doing something (it sort of means leaving an activity behind as dejar on it's own means to leave behind)
Parar - to cease or come to a halt
Terminar - to finish / terminate / complete
Always be aware of what you mean in English
Note that here, I'm talking about stopping an activity. Always be aware of what you mean so if you want to say "she's finished with him" then you mean something different to finishing an activity. You would say "ha roto con él" or "ha acabado con él".
If you want to say 'stop' meaning 'obstruct' then you don't mean 'to stop an activity' but to block something so you would use tapar or obstruir.

Here's a list of ways to express this 'stop / finish' meaning with some examples. You should be able to select which meaning you want and understand the differences between these verbs:
Meaning Verb Example
to finish
to put an end to something
to be over
acabar Cuando acabe esta bebida nos vamos = when I've finished this drink, we're leaving (subjunctive use because it isn't a fact that you will finish the drink)
Ayer acabé de reparar la lavadora = Yesterday I finished repairing the washing machine
acabar con = to put an end to / to use up
Tengo que acabar con ... = I must put an end to ...
Hemos acabado con todas nuestras reservas de combustible = We have used up all our fuel supplies (agotar also means 'to use up')

Acabarse means to run out of something
¿Se te acabó el dinero? = Have you run out of money?
se me acabó el papel = I've run out of paper
¿Se le acabó la gasolina? = Have you run out of petrol?
la fotocopiadora te avisa cuando se acaba el papel = the photocopier tells you when it's out of paper

Also - acabar de + infinitive= to have just done something
Acabo de comer = I've just eaten
to abandon
to stop doing something
(leaving an activity behind)
dejar de Quiere dejar de fumar = He wants to stop smoking
No dejes de comprar dos entradas para ellos = Make sure you buy two entrance tickets for them (or 'dont fail to ...')

Without "de", it means to allow or leave something behind. This is why it means "to leave an activity behind" or abandon e.g. quiero dejar un mensaje = I want to leave a message.
Dejar can also mean 'to lend' e.g. le dejé mi bolígrafo = I lent him my pen (I left to him, my pen).
When used in the reflexive, it means to accidentally leave something behind e.g. se dejó la cartera en un autobús = he left his wallet in a bus.
Note that ¡déjalo! means 'no te preocupes' (don't worry)
to impede
to prevent
impedir No puedes impedir que nos seguimos viendo = You can't stop us seeing each other
El coche impidió el tráfico = the car blocked the traffic
to stop
to cease
(music / weather / a vehicle / object)
parar se paró la música = the music stopped
¿El tren para allí? = Does the train stop here?
¿Ha parado nevar? = Has it stopped snowing?
Mi reloj se ha parado = My watch has stopped (reflexive use because it means my watch has stopped itself so without the 'se' bit, it would mean my watch stopped ... something)
Parar a hacer algo = to stop to do something
Paramos a comprar más comida = We stopped to buy more food

'sin parar' means 'without stopping' or 'non-stop' so you can use that to say something like "he was running non-stop".
There is some possible confusion with the word para meaning for / in order to
to put a stop to poner término a
to suspend suspender
to finish
to conclude
terminar This is used to talk about a conclusion to an activity.
He terminado de comer = I've finished eating
He terminado con la revista = I've finished with the magazine
¿A qué hora termina el espectáculo? = When (at what hour) does the show finish?
Terminé cansado después de la carrera = I ended up tired after the race

This can also be used to mean "to run out of" like acabarse
Se nos ha terminado el té = We've run out of tea

[ENGLISH] Are there any errors or do you want to add more information to these pages?
You can contact me at the bottom of the home page.

ESPAÑOL ¿Hay errores o tiene información adicional?
Puede mandarme un mensaje al final de la página principal

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